Human disturbance and egg-collecting were important factors in the decline of the species in the early 20th century. Recent population decline is attributed to commercial fisheries, shifts in prey populations, guano collection, nesting disturbance resulting in increased predation. These trends show no sign of reversing. Mortality from oil spills has been serious and may increase.
Woodcut. 22x31" paper; 17x24" image. 2018. A/P, no edition.